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Citation Help and Style Guide

This guide will provide information on APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian citation styles.

What is a DOI?

Definition from doi.org:
 
The Digital Object Identifier (DOI®) System is for identifying content objects in the digital environment. DOI® names are assigned to any entity for use on digital networks. They are used to provide current information, including where they (or information about them) can be found on the Internet. Information about a digital object may change over time, including where to find it, but its DOI name will not change.

The DOI System provides a framework for persistent identification, managing intellectual content, managing metadata, linking customers with content suppliers, facilitating electronic commerce, and enabling automated management of media. DOI names can be used for any form of management of any data, whether commercial or non-commercial.

 

What does that mean?

A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string that identifies content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when the article is published and made available electronically.

All DOI numbers begin with a 10 and contain a prefix and a suffix separated by a slash. The prefix is a unique number of four or more digits assigned to organizations; the suffix is assigned by the publisher and was designed to be flexible with publisher identification standards.

Not all articles or journals use DOIs; if you can't find a DOI you can use the persistant url in your citation instead.

DOI Examples

Here are some examples of DOIs:

10.1093/ajae/aaq063

10.1371/journal.pgen.1001111

A DOI is a permanent ID that, when appended to http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source.

For example, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajae/aaq063 will take you directly to the information page for the article "An Analysis of the Pricing of Traits in the U.S. Corn Seed Market."

Creating Permalinks

If an article has not been assigned a DOI, many citation styles require that you create a permanent link so that other users can find and view the article.  For information on creating a permalink, visit our FAQ page for help.

What is a permanent link?

The URL (Uniform Resource Locator or Web address) appears in a Web browser's address box, when an online article is viewed, is usually intended to be temporary and often does not function a few days or weeks later. Links designated as "permanent", "persistent" or "stable" are designed specifically to remain active and useable over time.

Where Can I Find the DOI?

The location of the DOI can depend on many things. Here are some places to look for the DOI:

  • First page of the electronic journal article
  • Near the copyright notice
  • Database landing page for an article
  • Hidden behind a button
  • In the citation generated by the database
  • Online using the free DOI lookup on www.crossref.org

finding a doi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not every electronic journal article has a DOI. If no DOI is available and you retrieved the journal article online, you should include the persistent URL.

APA Style

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned:

Template:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range.
          doi:0000000/000000000000

Example:

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(11/12),
          1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

 

Article From an Online Periodical with No DOI Assigned:

Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.

Template:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from
          http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/

Example:

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from
          http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

 

 

 

Chicago/Turabian Style

Online periodicals are cited exactly as their print counterparts with the addition of a DOI or URL at the end of the citation.  Include a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. If no DOI is available, list a URL. Include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline.

Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned:

Template:

Author, A. A., and Author, B. B. "Title of article." Title of Journal, volume number, issue number (Date of publication): page numbers,
          doi: 0000000/000000000000 (access date if necessary).

Example:

Peltonen, Kirsi, Noora Ellonen, Helmer B. Larsen, and Karin Helweg-Larsen. “Parental Violence and Adolescent Mental Health.” European
          Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
19, no. 11 (2010): 813-822. doi: 10.1007/s00787-010-0130-8.

 

Article From an Online Periodical with No DOI Assigned:

Template:

Author, A. A., and Author, B. B. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, volume number, issue number (Date of publication): page numbers.
          http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/ (access date if necessary).

Example:

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in
          Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study
          (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/
          v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo
(accessed January 7, 2004).

Source: Purdue Online Writing Lab, Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide, Turabian Quick Guide