Skip to main content
Montana State University - Home Montana State University Library - Home Ask the Library

PHL 278: Origins of Life

APA 6th Edition Guide for References

The following are examples of APA formatting of print and online resources for creating a list of references. For complete explanations and examples, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., shelved in the first floor reference area (call #Ref PE1478. P82 2010; see also and examples in the APA Style Guide to Electronic References below). All section numbers below refer to the 6th edition (2010) of the APA manual.

APA 6th Edition


Print Book Example: 7.02, p. 203

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.

Electronic Book Example: 7.02, p. 203

 O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from



Print Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Example: 7.01, p. 198

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill

patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Article from a Print Magazine Example: 7.01, p. 200

Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health

psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.

Article from a Newspaper Example: 7.01, p. 200

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.



Online Article with DOI Example: 7.01, p. 198

Robert, J., Pescatrice, D., & Braunstein, A. (2009). Wal-Mart and the US economy. Eastern Economic Journal, 35, 297-308.


Online Article with no DOI Example: 7.01, p. 199

Sillick, T. J. & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental

love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from


Online Article From a Database: see 6.5, page 192, third bullet

  • In general, you no longer need to cite database names since database content may change over time.



VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).

Retrieved from



American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force

on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from

Authors of Websites: If no author is listed, use the organization sponsoring the site. If you are unable to find an

author of any sort, use the following format: Title of document. (Date). Retrieved from http://Web address

Website Dates: Many times you will not find a date of the page, report etc. that you are citing. If this is the case,

use (n.d.) for the date. This means no date.





Use Author Last Name, followed by Initials. Use an ampersand (&) rather than AND. For more than eight

authors, list the first six authors followed by ellipsis (. . .) and then the last author's name. See section 6.27,

p. 184, for Author and Editor information.

One Author:
Two Authors:
Three to Seven Authors:
More than Eight:
No author:

Kaplan, F. M.
Brown, J. & Black, S. M.
Brown, J., Black, S. M., White, A. C., & Gray, B.
Brown, J. Black, S. M., White, A. C., Gray, B., Blond, D. J., Pink, V., . . . Blue, A.
Begin your citation with the title of the work followed by the year.


  • For titles of book chapters, books, articles, and websites, capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title, proper nouns, and the first letter of the first word after a colon (:)
  • For journals titles, capitalize all major words


Place titles of Journals, Books, and Websites in italics. Book chapters and articles should not be italicized.


Citations in your reference list should be double spaced. The second, third, fourth, etc., line of the citation should be indented 1/2 inch.

In-Text Citations Use the Author-Date System:

Reference to Whole Work: 6.11 on
Direct Quotations 6.03-6.10
(Kessler, 2003)
(Henig, 2008, p. 40)

Direct Quotations of Online Material Without Pagination: 6.05

  • Use section heading, paragraph number if visible, or short title.

Basic Citation Styles

Table 6.1, p. 177: see this chart for examples of types of in text citations



Need more help?

Ask the Service Desk (994-3139) or contact the Writing Center (994-5315 or 994-4346)

Other APA Resources

Other Style Guides