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What are PICO(T) questions?

Question Templates for Asking PICO(T) Questions:

P: Population/disease ( i.e. age, gender, ethnicity, with a certain disorder)

I: Intervention or Variable of Interest (exposure to a disease, risk behavior, prognostic factor)

C: Comparison (could be a placebo or "business as usual" as in no disease, absence of risk factor, Prognostic factor B)

O: Outcome (risk of disease, accuracy of a diagnosis, rate of occurrence of adverse outcome)

T: Time (time it takes to demonstrate an outcome - e.g. the time it takes for the intervention to achieve an outcome or how long participants are observed.

Note: Not every question will have an intervention (as in a meaning question) or time (when it is implied in another part of the question) component.

{ from Jeanette Koshar, RN, MSN, NP, PhD, }