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Citations Style Guide

This guide will provide information on APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian citation styles.

Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Guide

The following are examples of the Modern Language Association (MLA) formatting of resources for a list of works cited. For complete explanations and more examples, see the MLA Handbook. All  page numbers below refer to the 8th edition (2016) of the handbook.

In-Text Citations

The MLA documentation style uses parenthetical citations in the text that refer to the alphabetical list of works cited at the end of the paper. The parenthetical citation appears within the text at the end of the section of cited text and includes the author's last name, followed by a page number, where available: (Anderson 7).

There are many variations on this format depending on the circumstances and type of source being cited. For more examples, see the MLA Handbook, 8th edition, pages 54-58.

MLA Core Components

Author.

  • Begin with the author's last name, followed by a comma and the rest of the name.
  • See examples of works with multiple authors.
  • End this entry with a period.

Title of Source.

  • Titles of books and websites should be in italics.
  • Titles of periodicals, television episodes, and songs should be in quotation marks.
  • End this entry with a period.

Title of Container,

  • Title of journal (if using an article), book (if using a book chapter), or show title (if using an episode).
  • End this entry with a comma.

Other contributors,

  • These could include translators, creators of shows, annotation/forward/introduction authors, and people other then the author(s).
  • End this entry with a comma.

Version,

  • If the source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in the citation.
  • End this entry with a comma.

Number,

  • If the source is part of a numbered sequence (multi-volume book or journal with both volume and issue numbers), list those numbers.
  • End this entry with a comma.

Publisher,

  • The publisher produces or distributes the source to the public.
  • End this entry with a comma.

Publication Date,

  • The same source may be published on more than one date (online version vs. print). Use the one most relevant to your use.
  • End this entry with a comma.

Location.

  • Be as specific as possible in identifying a work's location.
  • End this entry with a period.

MLA 8th Edition Examples

Academic Journal with Stable URL (p. 32)

Goldman, Anne. "Questions of Transport: Reading Primo Levi Reading Dante." The Georgia Review, vol. 64, no. 1, 2010, pp. 69-88. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.

Academic Journal with DOI and No Page Numbers (p. 48)

Chan, Evans. "Postmodernism and Hong Kong Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol. 10, no. 3, May 2000. Project Muse, doi:10.1353/pmc.2000.0021.

Book (p. 21, *Note: the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown in North America.)

Jacobs, Alan. The Pleasures of Reading in an Age of Distraction. Oxford UP, 2011.

Dorris, Michael, and Louise Erdrich. The Crown of Columbus. HarperCollins Publishers, 1999.

Digital Image found on a Website (from https://mville.libguides.com/c.php?g=370027&p=5932225)

Vasquez, Gary A. Photograph of Coach K with Team USA. NBC Olympics, USA Today Sports, 5 Aug. 2016,

www.nbcolympics.com/news/rio-olympics-coach-ks-toughest-test-or-lasting-legacy. Accessed 24 April 2018.

Newspaper Article (from style.mla.org/files/2016/08/6598_Brandon_Paper_Updated.pdf)

Wente, Margaret. “In the Best Interests of the Child?” The Globe and Mail, 6 Apr. 2009, www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/in-the-best-interests-of-the-child/article20414097/.

Web Sites, Blog Entries, and Comments (pp. 30, 44)

Hollmichel, Stefanie. "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/.

Jeane. Comment on "The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print." So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, 10:30 p.m., somanybooksblog.com/2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/#comment-83030.

“Woman Gives Birth to Grandchild.” CNN.com, 15 Oct. 2006, www.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/10/15/japan.granny.reut/index.html.

Government Report (style.mla.org/files/2016/08/6598_Brandon_Paper_Updated.pdf)

United States, Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005 Assisted Reproductive Technology Success Rates: National Summary and Fertility Clinic Reports. Oct. 2007, www.cdc.gov/art/ART2005/508PDF/2005ART508.pdf.

Three or More Authors? Use et al. (pp. 22, 116)

Burdick, Anne, et al. Digital_Humanities. MIT P, 2012.

For an in-text citation, use (Burdick et al. 42).

Pseudonym for Author on Twitter Post (p. 24)

@persiankiwi. "We have report of large street battles in east & west of Tehran now - #Iranelection." Twitter, 23 June 2009, 11:15 a.m., twitter.com/persiankiwi/status/2298106072.