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Citations Style Guide

This guide will provide information on APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian citation styles.

Chicago Manual of Style/Turabian

The resources on this page focus primarily on one of the two Chicago Manual of Style documentation styles: the Notes-Bibliography System (NB), which is used by those in literature, history, and the arts. Be sure to check with your professor to see if they want you to use the Author-Date System.

In the NB system, you should include a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary. Footnotes will be added at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, and endnotes will be compiled at the end of each chapter or at the end of the entire document.

Whether using endnotes or footnotes, a superscript number1 corresponding to a note with the bibliographic information for that source should be placed in the text following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced.

Source: Purdue OWL - Chicago Style Guide

Footnote/Endnote Examples

Indent first line of endnote/footnote.

Journal article with DOI (Turabian sec. 17.2 & p. 148) 

     1. Lisa J. Kiser, "Silencing the Lambs: Economics, Ethics, and Animal Life in Medieval Franciscan Hagiography," Modern Philology 108, no. 3 (February 2011), accessed September 18, 2011, http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/658052.

Journal article, from database (17.2)

     2. Anastacia Kurylo, “Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum,” China Media Research 8, no. 4 (October 2012): 16, accessed March 9, 2013, Academic OneFile.

Journal article, print (p. 148)  

     3. Alexandra Bogren, “Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate,” Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 156.​

Magazine article (17.3)

     4. Jill Lepore, “Dickens in Eden,” New Yorker, August 29, 2011, 52.

Newspaper article (17.4)  

     5. Richard Simon, "Redistricting Could Cost California Some Clout in Washington," Los Angeles Times, August 28, 2011, accessed August 30, 2011, http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-california-congress-20110829,01873016.story.

Book by single author (17.1.1)  

     6. Harriet Murav, Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-Revolution Russia (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011), 219-20.​

Book by Multiple Authors (17.1.1)

     7. Donald R. Kinder and Allison Dale-Riddle, The End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in America (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012), 47.

Chapter in a book (17.1.8)  

     8. Cameron Binkley, “Saving Redwoods: Clubwomen and Conservation, 1900-1925,” in California Women and Politics: From the Gold Rush to the Great Depression, ed. Robert W. Cherny, May Ann Irwin, and Ann Marie Wilson (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011), 155.

Online Book (17.1.10)  

     9. George Pattison, God and Being: An Enquiry (Oxford University Press, 2011), 103-4, accessed September 2, 2012, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588688.001.0001.

Encyclopedia article online (17.5.3)  

     10.Encyclopaedia Britannic, s.v. “Sibelius, Jean,” accessed April 13, 2011, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/ 542563/Jean-Sibelius.

Web Site or Web Page (17.7.1)  

     11. "Privacy Policy," Google Privacy Center, last modified October 3, 2010, accessed March 3, 2011, http://www.google.com/intl/en/ privacypolicy.html.

Shortened Note for Works Cited Earlier (16.4)

For footnotes (or endnotes), when one citation to the same work immediately follows another on the same page, "ibid." can be used in the latter note.

     12. Harriet Murav, Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-Revolution Russia (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011), 219.

     13. Ibid., 111.

If reference is to a work already cited in full but not in the note immediately preceding, and only one work of the author has been used, then just the author's last name is needed.

     14. Murav, 204.

If two or more works of the same author have been cited, use the author's last name and brief title.

     15. Murav, Speeding Train, 204.

Bibliography Examples

Indent the second, third, etc. lines of the bibliography citation.

Journal article with DOI (Turabian sec. 17.2 & p. 148) - Use DOI if available or stable URL if not

Kiser, Lisa J. "Silencing the Lambs: Economics, Ethics, and Animal Life in Medieval Franciscan Hagiography." Modern Philology 108, no. 3

(February 2011): 323-342. Accessed September 18, 2011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/658052.

Journal article, from database (17.2) - Can give database name instead of URL

Kurylo, Anastacia. “Linsanity: The Construction of (Asian) Identity in an Online New York Knicks Basketball Forum.” China Media Research 8, no. 4

(October 2012): 15–28. Accessed March 9, 2013. Academic OneFile.

Journal article, print (p. 148)  

Bogren, Alexandra. “Gender and Alcohol: The Swedish Press Debate.” Journal of Gender Studies 20, no. 2 (June 2011): 155–69.

Magazine article (17.3) - No volume or issue numbers used

Lepore, Jill. “Dickens in Eden.” New Yorker, August 29, 2011.

Newspaper article (17.4)  

None. "In most cases, cite articles . . . from daily newspapers only in notes."

Book by single author (17.1.1)  

Murav, Harriet. Music from a Speeding Train: Jewish Literature in Post-Revolution Russia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2011.

Book by multiple authors (17.1.1)  

Kinder, Donald R. and Allison Dale-Riddle. End of Race? Obama, 2008, and Racial Politics in America. New Haven, CT: Yale

University Press, 2012.

Chapter in a book (17.1.8)  

Binkley, Cameron. “Saving Redwoods: Clubwomen and Conservation, 1900-1925.” In California Women and Politics: From the Gold Rush to the

Great Depression, edited by Robert W. Cherny, May Ann Irwin, and Ann Marie Wilson, 151-74. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011.

Online Book (17.1.10)  

Pattison, George. God and Being: An Enquiry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Accessed September 2, 2012,

http://dx.doi. org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199588688. 001.0001.

Encyclopedia article online (17.5.3)  

None. "Well-known reference works . . . should usually be cited only in notes."

Web Site or Web Page (17.7.1)  

Google. "Privacy Policy." Google Privacy Center. Last modified October 3, 2010. Accessed March 3, 2011.

http://www.google.com/intl/en/privacypolicy.html.