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Citations Style Guide

This guide will provide information on APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian citation styles.

NEW EDITION ALERT

APA has published an updated edition of their Publication Manual as of October 2019.

  • MSU librarians have updated this guide to reflect the new manual (changes indicated by **). 6th edition help will remain available.
  • Academic Writer has also updated their resources.
  • 17 Most Notable Changes - APA 7th edition

Please review the Publication Manual for the American Psychological Association (7th edition) for full and complete citation guidelines.

American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide

APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, based on the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general formatting of in-text and reference citations.

APA (7th edition) Citation Formats & Examples

Basic Author format:  

One author: Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial.  

Two authors: Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. & Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial.

Up to twenty authors: List all authors in above format.

Twenty-one or more authors: List nineteen authors, then ... and last author.

Editor instead of an author?

APA Format

Book & eBook

Book Format

Author's last name, First Initial. (Year).Title of book. Publisher. DOI

or URL  [If the source is an electronic format]

APA Book Example

Evans, J. (2007). Your psychology report: The essential guide. Sage.

APA eBook Example without a DOI

(If from a research database).

Broussard, M. S. (2017). Reading, research, and writing. Association

of College and Research Libraries. 

Chapter from a Book Format

Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Year). Title of chapter.

In Editor's First Initial & Middle Initial. Editor's Last Name (Eds.), Title of book in italics (pp. pages of chapter). Publisher. DOI or URL

     [If the source is an electronic format and has a DOI, use the DOI.

     If no DOI use the URL or if from a research database, do not use the

     URL]    

Chapter from a Book Example

Bryant, A., &  Charmaz, K. (2012). Grounded theory and psychological 

     research. In H. Cooper, P. M. Carmic, D. L. Long, A. T. Panter, D.

     Rindskopf, &  K. J. Sher (Eds.), APA handbook of research

     methods in psychology (pp. 39-56). American Psychological

     Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13620-003

More Information

Additional Examples from APA

Basic Author format:  

One author: Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial.  

Two authors: Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. & Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial.

Up to twenty authors: List all authors in above format.

Twenty-one or more authors: List nineteen authors, then ... and last author.

APA Format

Book & eBook

Article from Online Periodical Format

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal,

volume(issue). http://www.aurlgoeshere.com OR

https://doi.org/10.1080/02626667.2018.1560449

Article from a Database Format

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of

Journal, volume(issue), page range.

More Information

Additional Examples from APA

Basic Author format:  

One author: Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial.  

Two authors: Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial. & Author's last name, First Initial. Middle Initial.

Up to twenty authors: List all authors in above format.

Twenty-one or more authors: List nineteen authors, then ... and last author.

APA Format

Newspaper Article 

Online Article Format

Author's last name, First Initial, Middle Initial. (Year, Month Day). Title

     of article with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized. 

     Name of Newspaper. Page number. https://doi.org/ or URL of

     specific newspaper article. No URL if from a research database. 

Online Article from an online newspaper

Example

Selingo, J. (2004, February 05). When a search engine isn't enough,

     call a librarian. New York Times, G.5. https://www.nytimes.com

     /2004/02/05/technology/when-a-search-engine- isn-t-enough-call-a-

     librarian.html 

Online Article from a Research Database Example

Selingo, J. (2004, February 05). When a search engine isn't enough, 

     call a librarian. New York Times, G.5.

More information

Additional examples from APA Style Guide.

APA Format

Article from a Webpage

Website Format

 

 

  Author's Last Name, First Initial. (Year, Month, Day). Title. Name of  website.

     [Only use Retrieved date if the page is likely to change or be removed]

     https://www.xxxxxxx.full.url

APA Example 

(No author, no date)

(With a retrieved date)

Use a retrieved date if page is

likely to change or unlikely to be 

available in the future.

​Panama City Beach: The 19 best events to experience in 2019.(n.d.). Every

     Avenue Travel. Retrieved February 20, 2019 from

     https://everyavenuetravel.com/destinations/panama-city-

     beach-the-19-best-events-to-experience-in-2019/

APA Example

(No author, no date)

(No retrieved date)

Getting a good nights' sleep.(n.d.). American Psychological 

     Association. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/sleep-disorders

More Information

Additional Examples from APA

APA Format

Social Media

Tweet/Instagram Post Format

 Post Author, A. A. or Name of Group [@username]. (Year, Month Date). Content

of the post up to the first 20 words [Tweet or Instagram Post]. Site Name.

URL

Example

National Geographic [@NatGeo]. (2020, January 12). Scientists knew African

grays are clever, but now they’ve been documented assisting other

members of their species—even strangers [Tweet; thumbnail link to

article]. Twitter.

 https://twitter.com/NatGeo/status/1216346352063537154

More Information

Additional Examples from APA

APA Format

Films /Movies

Film Format

      Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of film. [Film].

     Production Company.

APA Example

Fleischer, R. (Director). (2003). 20,000 leagues

     under the sea (Special ed.) [Film]. Buena Vista Home Entertainment.

APA Format

YouTube Videos 

Youtube Format

Author, A. A. [Name of the account that uploaded the video].

(Year, Month, Day).Title of video [Video]. YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/[numbers and letters from the url]

APA Example

Sager, C. (2016, June, 9). Print's not dead for comic books [Video]. YouTube.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqbGVAj6MBA

 APA Format

PowerPoint Slides

PowerPoint Format

Author, A. A. (year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides].

Name of learning management system if available. URL or URL for the learning

management system login.https://[numbers and letters from the url]

APA Example (Website)

Palmer, R. (2019). GALILEO: STEM, e-books, and professional development  

     resources [PowerPoint slide]. https://about.galileo.usg.edu/documents/

APA Example (D2L or Class Site)

Jones, L. (2018). Searching library databases [PowerPoint slide] D2L

     https://D2L@loginsomeuniversity

In-Text Citations

When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

**The in-text citation for works with three or more authors is now shortened right from the first citation. You only include the first author’s name and “et al.”  (Taylor et al., 2018)**

If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.

In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining

  • Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
  • If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.

(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)

  • When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
  • Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
  • Italicize the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry."

Short quotations

If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found "students often had difficulty using APA style" (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (Jones, 1998, p. 199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.

Long quotations

Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.e., in the same place you would begin a new paragraph. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:

Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summary or paraphrase

If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.)

According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.

APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Source: APA In-Text Citations: The Basics