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BMGT 205 - Professional Communication Fundamentals

APA Mechanics

Authors: Use Author Last Name, followed by Initials. Use an ampersand (&) rather than AND. For more than eight authors, list the first six authors followed by ellipsis (. . .) and then the last author’s name. See section 6.27, p. 184, for Author and Editor information.

One Author:                               Kaplan, F. M.

Two Authors:                             Brown, J. & Black, S. M.

Three to Seven Authors:           Brown, J., Black, S. M., White, A. C., & Gray, B.

More than Eight:                        Brown, J. Black, S. M., White, A. C., Gray, B., Blond, D. J., Pink, V., . . . Blue, A.

No author:                                  Begin your citation with the title of the work followed by the year.



  • For titles of book chapters, books, articles, and websites, capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title, proper nouns, and the first letter of the first word after a colon (:)
  • For journals titles, capitalize all major words



Place titles of Journals, Books, and Websites in italics. Book chapters and articles should not be italicized.


Spacing: Citations in your reference list should be double spaced. The second, third, fourth, etc., line of the citation should be indented ½ inch.


APA Handout

Creating a Reference List

Guide for References

 The following are examples of APA formatting of print and online resources for creating a list of references.  For complete explanations and examples, see the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed., shelved in the first floor reference area (call # Ref PE1478. P82 2010; see also All section numbers below refer to the 6th edition (2010) of the APA manual.



Print Book Example:  7.02, p. 203

Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.


Electronic Book Example: 7.02, p. 203

O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from


Print Journal Article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier) Example: 7.01, p. 198

Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Article from a Print Magazine Example: 7.01, p. 200

Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., & Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology, 39(5), 26-29.

Article from a Newspaper Example: 7.01, p. 200

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.


Online Article with DOI Example: 7.01, p. 198

Robert, J., Pescatrice, D., & Braunstein, A. (2009). Wal-Mart and the US economy. Eastern Economic Journal, 35, 297-308. doi: 10.1057/eej.2008.19

Online Article with no DOI Example: 7.01, p. 199

Sillick, T. J. & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from

Online Article From a Database:     see 6.5, page 192, third bullet

  • In general, you no longer need to cite database names since database content may change over time.


VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from


American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from

Authors of Websites: If no author is listed, use the organization sponsoring the site. If you are unable to find an author of any sort, use the following format: Title of document. (Date). Retrieved from http://Web address


Website Dates: Many times you will not find a date of the page, report etc. that you are citing. If this is the case, use (n.d.) for the date. This means no date.